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BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES (BSC)

Professor Martha J. Powell, Chairperson
Office: 319 Biology Building

BSC 108 Introductory Biology for Non-Majors I. Four hours.

Three lectures and one two-hour laboratory period. Not open to biology majors or minors, pre–health professions students, or students with credit for BSC 114:115 and BSC 116:117 (or the honors equivalents, BSC 118 and BSC 120). Survey of the basic principles of cellular biology, genetics, plant and animal diversity, and evolution. Usually offered fall, spring, and summer. BSC 108 and BSC 109 may be taken in either order.

BSC 109 Introductory Biology for Non-Majors II. Four hours.

Three lectures and one two-hour laboratory period. Not open to biology majors or minors, or to pre–health professions students. Study of the physiology of living organisms, with emphasis on the physiology of humans. Includes an overview of general ecology and animal behavior. Usually offered fall, spring, and summer. BSC 108 and BSC 109 may be taken in either order.

BSC 114 Principles of Biology I. Three hours.

For biology majors, biology minors, and pre–health professions students. Study of general biological principles including the chemical basis of life, cellular biology including cell structure and metabolism, genetics, evolution, and a survey of simple organisms including viruses, bacteria, protista, and fungi. Usually offered in summer school. NOTE: A student must take both BSC 114 and BSC 115 in order to use either one of the courses to satisfy a portion of the natural science (N) requirement of the University Core Curriculum.

BSC 115 Biology I Laboratory. One hour.

Prerequisite or corequisite: BSC 114.

One three-hour laboratory period each week. NOTE: A student must take both BSC 114 and BSC 115 in order to use either one of the courses to satisfy a portion of the natural science (N) requirement of the University Core Curriculum.

BSC 116 Principles of Biology II. Three hours.

Prerequisite: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118.

For biology majors, biology minors, and pre–health professions students. Study of the structure, function, and ecology of organisms including bryophytes, vascular plants, invertebrate animals, and vertebrate animals. Usually offered in summer school. NOTE: A student must take both BSC 116 and BSC 117 in order to use either one of the courses to satisfy a portion of the natural science (N) requirement of the University Core Curriculum.

BSC 117 Biology II Laboratory. One hour.

Prerequisite or corequisite: BSC 116.

One three-hour laboratory period each week. NOTE: A student must take both BSC 116 and BSC 117 in order to use either one of the courses to satisfy a portion of the natural science (N) requirement of the University Core Curriculum.

BSC 118 Honors General Biology I. Four hours.

Prerequisites: Membership in the University Honors Program (or equivalent placement scores) or 3.3 college/university grade point average.

Prerequisite or corequisite: CH 101 or CH 117 (or high-school chemistry).

Three lectures, one discussion period, and one three-hour laboratory period each week. Thorough study of general biological principles, including the chemical basis of life, cellular biology, genetics, evolution, and a survey of prokaryotic organisms.

BSC 120 Honors General Biology II. Four hours.

Prerequisites: Membership in the University Honors Program (or equivalent placement scores) or 3.3 college/university grade point average; and BSC 118 or BSC 114:115.

Prerequisite or corequisite: CH 101 or CH 117 (or high-school chemistry).

Three lectures, one discussion period, and one three-hour laboratory period each week. Thorough study of the structure, function, physiology, and ecology of organisms including higher and lower plants and vertebrates and invertebrate animals.

A maximum of 12 hours of 100-level biology courses (BSC 108, BSC 109, BSC 114:115, BSC 116:117, BSC 118, BSC 120) may be applied to degree requirements.

BSC 201 Medical Etymology. Two hours.

Prerequisite: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, and BSC 116:117 or BSC 120.

The course is offered through the College of Continuing Studies Independent Study Program, Box 870388, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0388. Study of the derivation, meaning, and usage of terms from the vocabulary of medicine and related fields.

BSC 210 Human Reproduction. Three hours.

The course is offered through the College of Continuing Studies Independent Study Program, Box 870388, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0388. A survey of human reproduction stressing the continuity of homo sapiens by emphasizing human biological reproduction, human embryological development, and human inheritance. Topics such as sexually transmitted disease, intercourse, and childbirth are presented in an open, concise manner in the reading and viewing materials and lesson assignments. Offered irregularly.

BSC 213 Human Anatomy and Physiology without Laboratory. Four hours.

The course is offered through the College of Continuing Studies Independent Study Program, Box 870388, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0388. See BSC 215 for description.

BSC 214 Human Anatomy and Physiology without Laboratory. Four hours.

The course is offered through the College of Continuing Studies Independent Study Program, Box 870388, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0388. See BSC 216 for description.

BSC 215 Human Anatomy and Physiology I. Four hours.

Prerequisite: BSC 108 or BSC 109 or BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, or permission of the instructor.

Two lectures, one laboratory period, and one laboratory lecture. Integrated survey of human anatomy and physiology that includes cellular aspects; tissues and skin; the skeletal, muscular, nervous and endocrine systems; and the special senses of sight, hearing, taste, and smell.

BSC 216 Human Anatomy and Physiology II. Four hours.

Prerequisite: BSC 108 or BSC 109 or BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, or permission of the instructor.

Two lectures, one laboratory period, and one laboratory lecture. Integrated survey of human anatomy and physiology that includes the respiratory, circulatory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems.

BSC 242 Microbiology and Man. Four hours.

Prerequisites: One semester of biology and two semesters of chemistry.

For students majoring in nursing, education, and human environmental sciences. Three lectures and one laboratory period. Introduction to microbiology, with an emphasis on the relationships between man and protozoa, bacteria, viruses, and fungi. NOTE: Credit will not be granted for both BSC 242 and BSC 310.

BSC 281 History of Biology. Two hours.

Prerequisites: Two semesters of general biology.

The course is offered through the College of Continuing Studies Independent Study Program, Box 870388, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0388. Introduces the philosophical background of and important discoveries in the various scientific fields that influence trends in biological thought.

BSC 300 Cell Biology. Three hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, and CH 101 or CH 117, and CH 102 or CH 118.

Three lectures. The course is designed to provide an understanding of the molecular basis of cell function. Topics include metabolism, gene control, cell membranes, and cell-to-cell signaling.

BSC 303 Field Zoology. Three hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 116:117 or BSC 120.

One lecture and one laboratory period. A survey of the taxonomy, ecology, and identification of local biota. Offered irregularly.

BSC 305 Biology, Environment, and Resource Development. Three hours.

Prerequisite: Freshman biology course or high-school biology.

Three lectures. Introduction to the biological implications of human population growth and activity.

BSC 306 Marine Biology (same as MS 306). Four hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118 and BSC 116:117 or BSC 120.

NOTE: Taught summers at Dauphin Island Sea Lab.

BSC 309 Heredity. Three hours.

Three lectures. Introduction to the principles of inheritance and application of these principles to plants and animals, especially humans. Offered in the fall semester. NOTE: Credit will not be granted for both BSC 309 and BSC 315.

BSC 310 Microbiology. Five hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, BSC 116:117 or BSC 120, and CH 231; or permission of the instructor.

Three lectures and two laboratory periods. Survey course on microorganisms, including protozoa, bacteria, viruses, fungi, and algae. Offered in the spring semester. NOTE: Credit will not be granted for both BSC 310 and BSC 242.

BSC 311 General Bacteriology and Bacterial Physiology. Three hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 310 and CH 232, or permission of the instructor.

Three lectures. Fundamental course in bacteriology, with emphasis on bacterial morphology, physiology, nutrition, and genetics.

BSC 313 General Bacteriology Laboratory. Three hours.

Prerequisite or corequisite: BSC 311.

One lecture and two laboratory periods. Course presents methods for the isolation, microscopic observation, enumeration, and determination of the biochemical characteristics of bacteria.

BSC 315 Genetics. Three hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, and CH 101:102 or CH 117 and CH 118.

Three lectures. Study of transmission and function of genes, gene organization, regulation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes, and applications of genetics. NOTE: Credit will not be granted for both BSC 309 and BSC 315.

BSC 320 Freshwater Studies (same as GEO 320 and GY 320). Four hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, GEO 101, or GY 102.

Two lectures and one laboratory period. Lecture, field, and laboratory opportunities for students interested in integrated studies in hydrology, biogeochemistry, ecology, and social policy related to freshwaters.

BSC 321 Marine Technical Methods I (same as MS 321). Two hours.

Prerequisites: General physics, general chemistry, and 12 hours in a single science discipline. NOTE: Taught summers at Dauphin Island Sea Lab.

BSC 322 Marine Technical Methods II (same as MS 322). Two hours.

Prerequisites: General physics, general chemistry, and 12 hours in a single science discipline. NOTE: Taught summers at Dauphin Island Sea Lab.

BSC 345 Economic Botany. Three hours.

Three lectures. A consideration of plants that are of economic significance to humans in both primitive and modern cultures. Offered irregularly.

BSC 350 Introduction to Inquiry. Three hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115, BSC 116:117 (or BSC 118 and BSC 120), and CH 101 and CH 102 (or CH 117 and CH 118).

Two laboratory periods. A discovery-based laboratory/recitation experience in which teams of students use a variety of sources to explore real-world problems focused on a unifying theme and plan experiments to test hypotheses. Utilizing skills in ecological and molecular techniques, experiments will be conducted to address the problem and results will be presented as a scientific report and oral presentation.

BSC 360 Plant Biology. Three hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118 and BSC 116:117 or BSC 120, or permission of the instructor.

Three lectures. Introduction to the biology of embryophytes, with emphasis on their development, evolution, and ecology.

BSC 362 Plant Biology Laboratory. One hour.

Prerequisite or corequisite: BSC 360.

One three-hour laboratory.

BSC 371 Biology of the Lower Plants. Four hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118 and BSC 116:117 or BSC 120.

Two lectures and one four-hour laboratory.

BSC 373 Vertebrate Zoology. Four hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118 and BSC 116:117 or BSC 120.

Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory. Introductory course in the study of vertebrate zoology. Subjects included are principles of classification and nomenclature, a survey of vertebrate taxa, the species concept, analysis of taxonomic characters, and an introduction to zoogeography and behavior.

BSC 376 Invertebrate Zoology. Four hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118 and BSC 116:117 or BSC 120.

Two lectures and one four-hour laboratory. The classification, morphology, evolution, and ecology of invertebrate animals.

BSC 385 General Ecology. Three hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, BSC 116:117 or BSC 120, and MATH 112.

Three lectures. A study of the general principles of ecology, covering evolution, autoecology, energetics, nutrient cycling, population dynamics, competition, predation, and community analysis.

BSC 386 General Ecology Laboratory. Two hours.

Prerequisite or corequisite: BSC 385.

One four-hour laboratory. Offered irregularly.

BSC 390 Honors Thesis Research in Biological Sciences. One to four hours.

Prerequisite: Acceptance in the Biological Sciences Honors Program.

Individual research conducted under the direction of an advisor and reported in an acceptable thesis. May be repeated over two to four semesters for a maximum 8 hours of credit.

BSC 391 Tutorial in Biological Sciences. One to two hours.

Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing and permission of the instructor prior to registration.

Survey of the literature relating to a topic approved by the supervising faculty member; not to include laboratory or field research. A formal paper and/or examination is required. May be taken for one credit hour in each of two consecutive semesters, or for one or two credit hours in any one semester. Offered according to demand.

BSC 396 Resident Study at an Approved Biological Station. One to six hours.

Prerequisite: Written approval from the department office prior to registration. Credit awarded is determined by the extent of the student's participation, but may not exceed 6 hours.

BSC 397 Undergraduate Research in Biological Sciences. One to four hours.

Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing; permission of a supervising faculty member and the department chairperson; written synopsis of proposed project and method of attack.

Independent research or research participation. A maximum of 4 hours credit for BSC 397 may be applied to the requirements of the biology and microbiology majors; an additional 4 hours may be taken as elective credit and applied to the 120-hour requirement. Offered in the fall, spring, and summer semesters.

BSC 400 Vertebrate Functional Morphology. Four hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, BSC 116:117 or BSC 120, BSC 300, and junior standing or permission of the instructor.

Recommended for pre–health professions students. Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory. The comparative anatomy of the vertebrates with emphasis on functional features of several vertebrate species. Laboratory work deals mainly with identifying anatomical features of several vertebrate species.

BSC 401 Scientific Writing for Biologists. Three hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, BSC 116:117 or BSC 120, and junior or senior standing with a major in a natural science.

Three lectures. An introduction to biological literature and the style and techniques of scientific writing. Offered irregularly.

BSC 403:404 Introduction to Biological Instruction. Two hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, BSC 116:117 or BSC 120, and junior or senior standing, formal application, and a satisfactory interview.

BSC 406 Marine Biology for Teachers (same as MS 406). Six hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, BSC 116:117 or BSC 120, 10 hours of marine science or biological sciences courses, and permission of the instructor.

Not open to biology majors, marine science majors or minors, or any student who has taken MS 306. A survey of marine organisms, including the communities they form and the physical and chemical factors that influence their lives. Also covered are materials and methods of instruction on marine topics. NOTE: Taught summers at Dauphin Island Sea Lab.

BSC 407 Honors Seminar in Biological Sciences. One hour.

Prerequisite: Admission to the Biological Sciences Honors Program.

Prerequisite or corequisite: Completion of UA Core Curriculum requirements.

One hour of seminar and discussion per week. In the first semester, students present seminars based on the current literature. In the second semester, students present seminars derived from their honors theses. A maximum of 4 hours of credit for BSC 407 may be applied to the requirements of the biology or microbiology major. Offered according to demand.

BSC 408 Marine Invertebrate Zoology (same as MS 408). Four hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118 and BSC 116:117 or BSC 120,.

Comparative study of the major marine invertebrate phyla, protozoa through protochordates. The focus is on their morphology, physiology, ecology, and phylogenetic relationships. NOTE: Taught summers at Dauphin Island Sea Lab.

BSC 409 Hospital Apprenticeship I. Two hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, BSC 116:117 or BSC 120, and senior premedical student standing.

NOTE: This course is open only to senior premedical students. Does not count as hours for the biology major or minor. A one-semester apprenticeship at Northport Hospital–DCH. Students are assigned to or may select departments in which they will be given special tasks that contribute to the operation of these departments.

BSC 410 Hospital Apprenticeship II. Two hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, BSC 116:117 or BSC 120, and senior premedical student standing.

NOTE: This course is open only to senior premedical students. Does not count as hours for the biology major or minor. A continuation of BSC 409. A one-semester apprenticeship at Northport Hospital–DCH. Students are assigned to or may select departments in which they will be given special tasks that contribute to the operation of these departments.

BSC 411 Marsh Ecology (same as MS 411). Four hours.

Prerequisites: General chemistry, general physics, general biology, MATH 125, and BSC 385 or BSC 480.

Study of the flora and fauna of various marine marsh communities. The interaction of physical and biological factors is emphasized. Field trips acquaint students with regional examples of marsh types.

BSC 412 Limnology. Three hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, BSC 116:117 or BSC 120.

Study of freshwater environments and the organisms that live in lakes, ponds, and streams. May be taken with BSC 413 or separately.

BSC 413 Limnology Laboratory. Two hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, BSC 116:117 or BSC 120.

One laboratory period. An optional laboratory accompanying BSC 412.

BSC 414 Dendrology. Three hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, BSC 116:117 or BSC 120.

One lecture and one four-hour laboratory period. Identification, classification, characteristics, and distribution of the principal forest trees of the United States. Two weekend field trips are required. Offered in alternate years.

BSC 415 Ecology of Aquatic Plants and Wetland Ecosystems. Three hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, BSC 116:117 or BSC 120, or permission of the instructor.

Three lectures. Physiology and ecology of submerged, floating, and emergent aquatic plants and attached microflora of the littoral and wetland regions of aquatic ecosystems. Offered in alternate years.

BSC 416 Aquatic Vascular Plants. Four hours.

Prerequisite: BSC 434.

Two lectures and one four-hour laboratory period. Identification, classification, characteristics, and distribution of aquatic plant species. One weekend field trip is required. Offered in alternate years.

BSC 417 Environmental Modeling. Three hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, BSC 116:117 or BSC 120, CH 101 or CH 117, CH 102 or CH 118, and MATH 125 (or equivalents).

An integrated study of quantitative principles and computer-based solution techniques important for understanding environmental systems and for environmental problem solving.

BSC 419 Marine Ecology. Four hours.

Prerequisites: General chemistry, general physics, general biology, MATH 125, and BSC 385. NOTE: Taught summers at Dauphin Island Sea Lab.

Bioenergetics, community structure, population dynamics, predation, competition, and specialization in marine ecosystems.

BSC 420 Principles of Systematic Zoology. Three hours.

Prerequisite: BSC 373 or permission of the instructor.

Three lectures. Introduction to the principles, methods, and applications of systematic zoology and the zoological classifications.

BSC 421 Coastal Ornithology (same as MS 421). Four hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 373.

Study of coastal and pelagic birds with emphasis on ecology, taxonomy, and distribution. NOTE: Taught summers at Dauphin Island Sea Lab.

BSC 422 Climate Dynamics. Three hours.

Prerequisites: PH 101:102; MATH 125; GY 101:102.

A quantitative introduction to the earth's climate on global and regional scales, including interactions between atmosphere, ocean, and biosphere. Offered in alternate years via IITS.

BSC 424 Human Physiology. Three hours.

Prerequisite: BSC 300.

Three lectures. Topics covered are the digestive, nervous, reproductive, immune, muscular, blood, cardiovascular, respiratory, urinary, and body-fluid systems. May be taken with BSC 425 or separately.

BSC 425 Human Physiology Laboratory. Two hours.

Prerequisite or corequisite: BSC 424.

One four-hour laboratory period. Hands-on experience for understanding the principles and mechanisms of physiological processes of the human body. Major emphases on organ system performance, whole-body metabolism, and energetics.

BSC 428 Biology of Fishes. Three hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 373 and BSC 385 or permission of the instructor.

Two lectures and one laboratory period. Survey of the structure, function, ecology, and classification of fishes. Writing proficiency is required for a passing grade in this course. Offered in alternate years.

BSC 431 Pathogenic Microbiology. Three hours.

Prerequisite: BSC 310 or permission of the instructor.

Three lectures. Study of microorganisms related to health and disease with emphasis on molecular mechanism of pathogenesis.

BSC 432 Pathogenic Microbiology Laboratory. Three hours.

Prerequisite: BSC 310 or permission of the instructor.

Prerequisite or corequisite: BSC 431 or permission of the instructor.

One lecture and two three-hour laboratory periods. Practical experience in the isolation, characterization, and identification of pathogenic microorganisms. Writing proficiency is required for a passing grade in this course. Offered in alternate years.

BSC 434 Plant Taxonomy. Four hours.

Two lectures and one four-hour laboratory period. Characteristics and distribution of the major families of vascular plants, as well as practice in the collection and identification of flowering plants. One weekend field trip required. Offered in alternate years.

BSC 435 Immunology. Four hours.

Prerequisite: BSC 310 or permission of the instructor.

Three lectures. Thorough exploration of various aspects of modern immunology at the molecular and cellular levels.

BSC 436 Immunology Laboratory. Three hours.

Prerequisite: BSC 435 or permission of the instructor.

One lecture and two three-hour laboratory periods. Practical experience in modern immunological techniques. Writing proficiency is required for a passing grade in this course. Offered in alternate years.

BSC 439 Molecular Biology Laboratory. Three hours.

Prerequisite: BSC 450 or permission of the instructor.

Two lectures and two laboratories. Students participate in the generation of new knowledge, thus the experiments vary. Techniques taught include agarose gel electrophoresis, cycle sequencing, sequence analysis, plasmid purification, restriction endonuclease digestion, gel purification of DNA, ligation, transformation, primer design, PCR, gene knockouts, protein fusions, and enzyme assays.

BSC 441 Developmental Biology. Three hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 300 and BSC 315, or permission of the instructor.

Three lectures. The course provides basic information about events in developing animal systems, emphasizing cellular, molecular, and genetic research approaches to the study of development.

BSC 442 Integrated Genomics. Four hours.

Prerequisite: BSC 300; prerequisite or corequisite: BSC 315.

An advanced discovery-based laboratory course designed to introduce the process of gene discovery and integrate modern genomics techniques and bioinformatic database usage. Writing proficiency is required for a passing grade in this class.

BSC 444 General Virology. Three hours.

Prerequisite: BSC 300 or BSC 310, or permission of the instructor.

Three lectures. A survey of viruses, viral replication, and viral pathogenesis, including bacterial, animal, and plant viruses. The role of viruses in molecular biology is emphasized.

BSC 448 Introduction to Oceanography (same as MS 448). Four hours.

Prerequisites: General physics, general biology, and MATH 125.

NOTE: Taught summers at Dauphin Island Sea Lab.

BSC 450 Fundamentals of Biochemistry. Three hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, BSC 116:117 or BSC 120, and CH 232.

Three lectures. A one-semester survey of protein structure, enzymes, bioenergetics, metabolism and its regulation. Designed for advanced undergraduate students. Offered fall semester.

BSC 451 Molecular Biology. Three hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 450 and BSC 311 or BSC 315 or CH 462.

A one-semester survey of molecular biology that emphasizes gene structure, function, and regulation of expression. Offered spring semester.

BSC 452 Marine Vertebrate Zoology (same as MS 452). Four hours.

Prerequisite: BSC 373 or BSC 400. NOTE: Taught summers at Dauphin Island Sea Lab.

BSC 453 Marine Botany (same as MS 453). Four hours.

Prerequisite: BSC 360 or BSC 371. NOTE: Taught summers at Dauphin Island Sea Lab.

BSC 455 Laboratory Animal Sciences. Two hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, BSC 116:117 or BSC 120, and permission of the instructor.

One lecture and one laboratory. Study of the husbandry and use of animals in research, including handling, housing, breeding, nutrition, diseases and parasites, basic techniques of anesthesia and surgery, and administration of drugs and medication.

BSC 456 Microbial Ecology. Three hours.

Prerequisite: BSC 310 or permission of the instructor.

Three lectures. Study of microorganisms in the environment, with emphasis on their roles in energy transformations, biogeochemical cycles, and biotic interactions.

BSC 457 Microbial Ecology Laboratory. Two hours.

Prerequisite: BSC 310 or permission of the instructor.

One four-hour laboratory period. A laboratory course that provides training in techniques for examination of the abundance, diversity, and activity of microorganisms in natural water, soil, and sediment environments. Offered alternate years.

BSC 460 Human Developmental Biology. Four hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 300 and BSC 400 are recommended.

Three lectures and one three-hour laboratory. Development of the human embryo and fetus, including molecular, physiological, and structural aspects of morphogenesis, and functional development. Offered in alternate years.

BSC 464 Biology of Algae. Four hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118 and BSC 116:117 or BSC 120.

Two lectures and one four-hour laboratory period. Freshwater and marine algae—their structure, development, taxonomy, and distribution. Writing proficiency is required for a passing grade in this course.

BSC 469 Histology of Vertebrates. Four hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118 and BSC 116:117 or BSC 120.

Two lectures and two, two-hour laboratories. Identification of tissue

types and components, histogenesis and function of tissues.

BSC 472 Mycology. Three hours.

Prerequisite: BSC 310 or permission of the instructor.

Two lectures and two laboratory periods. Introduction to the fungi and their biology including aspects of their structure and function, taxonomy, genetics, and ecology. Writing proficiency is required for a passing grade in this course. Offered in alternate years.

BSC 475 General Entomology. Four hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, BSC 116:117 or BSC 120.

Two lectures and one four-hour laboratory. Survey of the structure, function, classification, and habits of insects. Writing proficiency is required for a passing grade in this class.

BSC 476 Aquatic Insects. Four hours.

Prerequisite: BSC 475 or permission of the instructor.

Two lectures and one four-hour laboratory. Survey of aquatic insects, with emphasis on their identification, life histories, and ecology. Offered in alternate years.

BSC 482 Conservation Biology. Three hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, BSC 116:117 or BSC 120, and junior standing or permission of instructor.

Three lectures. A thorough examination of the principles of conservation biology.

BSC 483 Evolution. Three hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, BSC 116:117 or BSC 120, and BSC 315.

Three lectures. Thorough investigation of evolution, including population genetics, molecular evolution, adaptation, and speciation. Offered irregularly.

BSC 484 Aquatic Biology Seminar. One hour.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, BSC 116:117 or BSC 120, and permission of the instructor.

Review and discussion of current topics in aquatic biology. Offered in the fall semester.

BSC 487 Biogeography. Three hours.

Prerequisite: BSC 385 or permission of the instructor.

Examination of the ecological and historical factors influencing the geographic distribution of plants and animals. Offered alternate years.

BSC 490 Stream Ecology. Four hours.

Prerequisite: BSC 385.

Two lectures and one laboratory. Thorough study of the structural (physical and biological) and functional attributes (energy flow, nutrient cycling, community structure) characteristic of stream and river ecosystems. Offered in alternate years.

BSC 494 Signal Transduction in Neurobiology. Three hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 300, BSC 315, and BSC 441.

An advanced undergraduate seminar on current topics related to signal transduction, as it pertains to the molecular basis of neurobiology and development. Offered in alternate years.

BSC 495 Advanced Cell Biology. Three hours.

Prerequisite: BSC 300 or permission of the instructor.

Three lectures. The course presents the structures, functions, and relationships of cellular organelles and the cytoskeleton.

BSC 496 Bioremediation. Three hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, BSC 116:117 or BSC 120, and permission of the instructor.

Study of the biological degradation of toxic chemicals in the environment.

BSC 497 Special Topics. One to four hours.

Prerequisites: BSC 114:115 or BSC 118, BSC 116:117 or BSC 120, and permission of the instructor.

A biological sciences topic not covered in other courses. The credit hours and format are arranged as appropriate to the topic, and a course title is added when the course is taught. Offered according to demand.

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